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Lid margin disease – causes, diagnosis, prevention and treatment

  • 3 min read

Lid margin disease, also known as blepharitis, is an inflammation of the eyelid margins, which are the edges of the eyelids where the eyelashes are located. It’s a common eye condition that can cause discomfort and may be associated with other eye problems.


There are several possible causes for lid margin disease:

  1. Bacterial eyelid infection: This is the most common cause of blepharitis. Certain types of bacteria that live naturally on the skin can sometimes multiply and lead to inflammation.
  2. Meibomian gland dysfunction (MGD): These glands located at the rim of the eyelids produce oil that forms part of the tear film. When these glands don’t function properly, it can lead to dry eyes and inflammation of the eyelid margins.
  3. Dermatological conditions: Conditions like rosacea and seborrheic dermatitis, which affect the skin and oil glands of the face and scalp, can also affect the eyelids and cause blepharitis.
  4. Allergic reactions: Reactions to eye medications, contact lens solutions or other substances can cause inflammation of the eyelid margins.

Diagnosis of lid margin disease is typically made through a digital clinical examination of the eye and eyelids. The doctor may use a slit lamp, a special microscope for examining the eye, to get a closer look at the eyelid margins and evaluate the severity of the condition. They may also ask about symptoms such as itching, burning, or a feeling of grittiness in the eyes.



While not all cases of blepharitis can be prevented, good eyelid hygiene can help reduce the risk:

  1. Regular cleaning: Cleaning the eyelid margins regularly with a warm, damp washcloth can help remove excess bacteria and oils that can lead to inflammation.
  2. Avoid irritants: If you have allergies, try to avoid exposure to allergens that can cause inflammation.
  3. Healthy diet: Omega-3 fatty acids, found in foods like fish and flaxseeds, can help support healthy functioning of the meibomian glands.
stages of Meibomian Gland Disease or Lid margin disease
Lower lid Margin Disease


Treatment of lid margin disease aims to control symptoms and manage any underlying conditions that may be contributing to the problem:

  1. Eyelid hygiene: Regular cleaning of the eyelids, sometimes with the addition of a mild shampoo or an over-the-counter eyelid cleanser, is often the first step in treatment.
  2. Warm compresses: Applying a warm compress to the eyes can help soothe inflammation and stimulate the meibomian glands to produce more oil.
  3. Medication: Depending on the cause of the blepharitis, medications such as antibiotics, anti-inflammatories, or treatments for underlying skin conditions may be recommended.
  4. Management of dry eyes: If dry eyes are contributing to the problem, artificial tears or other treatments may be used to help maintain a healthy tear film.

Remember, this information is general in nature and if you’re experiencing symptoms, you should consult with a healthcare provider for a proper diagnosis and treatment.

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